Frontal lobe:
Executive functions, thinking, planning, organizing and problem solving, emotions and behavior control, personality.

Lateral ventricle:
Communicating network of cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Parietal lobe:
Perceptions, making sense of the world, arithmetic and spelling.

Corpus callosum:
Thick band of nerve fibers that divides the cerebral cortex lobes into left and right hemispheres. It connects the left and right sides of the brain allowing for communication between both hemispheres.


Some of its functions are the relaying of sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.

Occipital lobe:



An important role in motor control.

Medulla (oblongata):

Helps regulate breathing, heart and blood vessel function, digestion, sneezing, and swallowing


Besides the medulla oblongata, the pons is also involved in the control of breathing, communication between different parts of the brain, and sensations such as hearing, taste, and balance.


The portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.

Pituitary gland:

Produces adrenocorticotropic hormone, which stimulates the adrenal glands to secrete steroid hormones, principally cortisol.  Produces growth hormone, which regulates growth, metabolism and body composition.


Common Conditions:

  • Brain Aneurysm
    A brain aneurysm (is a bulge or ballooning in a blood vessel in the brain. It often looks like a berry hanging on a stem. A brain aneurysm can leak or rupture, causing bleeding into the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). Most often a ruptured brain aneurysm occurs in the space between the brain and the thin issues covering the brain. This type of hemorrhagic stroke is called a subarachnoid hemorrhage. A ruptured aneurysm quickly becomes life-threatening and requires prompt medical treatment. Most brain aneurysms, however, don’t rupture, create health problems or cause symptoms. Such aneurysms are often detected during tests for other conditions. Treatment for an unruptured brain aneurysm may be appropriate in some cases and may prevent a rupture in the future.


  • Brain Tumor
    A brain tumor is a mass or growth of abnormal cells in your brain or close to your brain. Many different types of brain tumors exist. Some brain tumors are noncancerous (benign), and some brain tumors are cancerous (malignant). Brain tumors can begin in your brain (primary brain tumors), or cancer can begin in other parts of your body and spread to our brain (secondary, or metastatic, brain tumors).  How quickly a brain tumor grows can vary greatly. The growth rate as well as location of a brain tumor determines how it will affect the function of your nervous system. Brain tumor treatment options depend on the type of brain tumor you have, as well as its size and location.
  • Chiari Malformation
    Chiari malformation is a condition in which brain tissue extends into your spinal canal. It occurs when part of your skull is abnormally small or misshapen, pressing on your brain and forcing it downward. Chiari malformation is uncommon, but increased use of imaging tests have led to more frequent diagnoses. Doctors categorize Chiari malformation into three types, depending on the anatomy of the brain tissue that is displaced into the spinal canal, and whether developmental abnormalities of the brain or spine are present.Chiari malformation type I develops as the skull and brain are growing. As a result, signs and symptoms may not occur until late childhood or adulthood. The pediatric forms, Chiari malformation type II and type III, are present at birth (congenital). Treatment of Chiari malformation depends on the form, severity and associated symptoms. Regular monitoring, medications and surgery are treatment options. In some cases, no treatment is needed.


  • Hydrocephalus
    Hydrocephalus is the buildup of fluid in the cavities (ventricles) deep within the brain. The excess fluid increases the size of the ventricles and puts pressure on the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid normally flows through the ventricles and bathes the brain and spinal column. But the pressure of too much cerebrospinal fluid associated with hydrocephalus can damage brain tissues and cause a large spectrum of impairments in brain function. Although hydrocephalus can occur at any age, it’s more common among infants and older adults. Surgical treatment for hydrocephalus can restore and maintain normal cerebrospinal fluid levels in the brain. A variety of interventions are often required to manage symptoms or functional impairments resulting from hydrocephalus.


  • Intracranial Hematoma
    Subdural hematomaThis occurs when blood vessels — usually veins — rupture between your brain and the outermost of three membrane layers that cover your brain (dura mater). The leaking blood forms a hematoma that compresses the brain tissue. If the hematoma keeps enlarging, a progressive decline in consciousness occurs, possibly resulting in death.The three types of subdural hematomas are:

    • Acute.
      This type is the most dangerous. It’s generally caused by a severe head injury, and signs and symptoms usually appear immediately.
    • Subacute.
      Signs and symptoms take time to develop, sometimes days or weeks after your injury.
    • Chronic.
      The result of less severe head injuries, this type of hematoma may cause much slower bleeding, and symptoms can take weeks to appear. You might not recall injuring your head. All three types require medical attention as soon as signs and symptoms appear, or permanent brain damage may result.

    Epidural hematoma

    Also called an extradural hematoma, this type occurs when a blood vessel — usually an artery — ruptures between the outer surface of the dura mater and the skull. Blood then leaks between the dura mater and the skull to form a mass that compresses the brain tissue.Some people with this type of injury remain conscious, but most become drowsy or comatose from the moment of trauma. An epidural hematoma that affects an artery in your brain can be deadly unless you get prompt treatment.

    Intraparenchymal hematoma

    This type of hematoma, also known as intracerebral hematoma, occurs when blood pools in the brain. After a head trauma, there may be multiple severe intraparenchymal hematomas. The trauma that causes intraparenchymal hematomas often is responsible for so-called white matter shear injuries.  This shearing can result in serious brain damage.


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